Journal of Sonic Studies, volume 6, nr. 1 (January 2014)James Batcho: THE SONIC LIFEWORLD: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF THE IMAGINATIVE POTENTIAL OF ANIMATION SOUND
1 Exceptions to this are claymation, stop-animation and other profilmic forms, although in an imaginative sense and in the practice of sound, these forms have more in common with traditional animation than with photography.
2 See, for example, Aristotle, Poetics (Aristotle 1962).
3 Point-of-audition can be attributed, in its different uses of the term, to Rick Altman (Altman 1992) and Michel Chion (Chion 1994). More recent writings that illustrate the ongoing degree of difficulty in considering POA include Anahid Kassabian (Kassabian 2008) and Svein Høier (Høier 2012), among others. The former illustrates the level of ambiguity that arises, while the latter attempts to encompass and categorize multifarious aspects of the term.
4 The Conversation (Coppola 1974) features a taped recording which is fixed as an object, but whose significance changes through the interpretation of the lead character. The Orphanage, or El Orfanato (Bayona 2007), includes a sonic event whose meaning changes when the scene is revisited from a different state of awareness. Because these sonic events are plot-driven moments that manifest in different ways over the course of the film, it is best to watch both films in their entirety to understand how sonic disclosures can function in film.
5 This essay concentrates on Asian films because they are developed outside of the Hollywood system. Popular American animations tend to mimic the Hollywood tradition of film sound. Therefore, there is rarely anything distinct between USA-based animation and film in their sound approach. This is something worth further research in animation sound studies.
James Batcho is the author of Sound for Independent Audiovisual Storytelling (Sanshin Publishing, 2013) and has written for Media Culture & Society, Offscreen and other publications. He was sound designer and music supervisor for the documentary film Ari Ari the Korean Cinema, and previously taught filmmaking at Kyungsung University in South Korea. He is currently writing his dissertation on phenomenologies of sound for the European Graduate School. More information is available at http://www.jimbatcho.com.